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7 (2014)
Tunnelling Towards Hope


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28 February - 6 March 2014

Ukraine History

A Stronghold of Rulers and Rebels

With the recent death toll jumping to nearly 100 and 1,000 injured, Hrushevskoho Street, one of the strongholds of EuroMaidans three-month-long protests, made headlines around the globe. It was here, on 19 January the countrys stand against government corruption, abuse of power, and the violation of human rights turned from peaceful protest to all-out revolution. Having witnessed much over the years, Hrushevskoho is a street with a history, and not only care of recent days.

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Ukraine Today
Acelebrity using their status and intelligence to influence public views and opinion is rarely seen in modern society, even less so in Ukraine. Here, the majority of celebs use their time, effort, and money to enhance or further their career rather than put their name to something that can do good for others. However, as EuroMaidan intensifies, some are making themselves heard and they fall either side of the EuroMaidan divide.
It used to be that when rebellion and revolution occurred, the intellectual, creative, and spiritual elite would be front and centre.

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Ukrainian Culture

When Walls Can Talk

People have been writing on walls since the dawn of civilisation, we call it graffiti, and ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings. Sometimes it is merely the creator wanting to leave his or her mark; sometimes there is an underlying social or political reason. And it is due to the latter that graffiti has exploded across Kyiv in recent months. Anti dictator messages aside, we peel back a few layers of paint to look at graffiti in the city in general.

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Ukraine History

The Battle for Lviv 1 November 1918 30 May 1919

Captured and then recaptured many times over, Lviv has been the unfortunate site of many battles and sieges becoming a part of numerous different states and empires. Poland, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austrian and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire as well as the Soviet UNI0N have all made quite successful attempts at her capture. But there is one that stands out; one that, to succeed, required sovereignty and so struggling to remain the West Ukrainian Peoples Republic, the Battle of Lviv was fought for six long months.
With archaeological evidence supporting the possibility that the area of Lviv had been occupied since as early as 5th century AD, the city itself was founded in 1256 by King Danylo of the Ruthenian Duchy of Galicia-Volhynia (a principality of post-Kievan Rus) who named it after his son, Lev.

Consistently recognised as a major trade centre, it has always been a popular port and for that reason has more than often been quietly coveted by its neighbours, even becoming the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire for some time.

The Galician Scenery
A major defeat in 1867 caused Austrias Empire to transform into the Austro-Hungarian Empire at which point, an emancipation of many cultures occurred. Following the First World War in 1917, a huge military defeat for the Empire, it was then dissolved and a Ukrainian national movement for self-determination re-emerged, forming the Ukrainian Peoples Republic in November of that same year.
Lviv at that time found itself under the Poland partition and was comprised of approximately 60% Poles and 20% Jews with Ukrainians making up the majority of the population surrounding the city. As it was the biggest city within the Galician region, the Poles generally disregarded the very large Ukrainian community that resided amongst them, which would eventually prove problematic especially with Western Ukraines imminent independence assured. Conflict was most definitely inevitable as Polish residents of the city did not want to be residents of a non-Polish state.

On the Battleground
It began in October 1918, when, under authority of the Austrian Archduke and as Polish units were being sent to other fronts, troupes of Ukrainian ethnicity were marched in and from then on stationed within the city. The Ukrainian Sich Riflemen, stationed in Bukovina, were also ready to join forces at any time. The Ukrainian National Rada was preparing to declare the West Ukrainian Peoples Republic an independent state on 3 November but had its inauguration moved up to the 1st as there was talk of a Polish liquidation committee to transfer from Krakow to Lviv.
Occupying public utilities and raising Ukrainian flags throughout the city on the very early morning of 1 November, 1918, a new Ukrainian state was pronounced. The Austrian governor handed over power to the Ukrainian National Rada and Lviv was declared the capital; even though a large part of this area was yet considered Polish.
Polish forces however refused to allow it and quickly organised an opposition that brought together both veterans from the Polish Military Organisation as well as hundreds of volunteers. The enemy was under-equipped and short-handed but they knew the city well which proved a strategic tactic especially in the early days. In the meantime, the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen were having trouble penetrating the city itself and only a couple of days later were they able to break through. An attack on the Main Train Station by the Poles however became a small victory for them as Ukrainian forces were no longer able to supply themselves with weaponry and were pushed further out of the city. By the 5th, a stalemate was reached as personnel on the frontlines continued to be insufficient.

Action-Reaction
Even though Ukrainians continued the fight, the Polish continued to repel them and fighting raged on like this until 18 November, when an armistice was signed. But this would only last for a few days as a Polish detachment arrived in the city with more men and more guns and Ukrainians were forced to withdraw. This however would not prevent chaos from ensuing: Ukrainians continued to surround Lviv from three-sides while soldiers and criminals of Polish origin pillaged the city, the results of which were the deaths of hundreds of Poles, Ukrainians and Jews.
Once order had finally been established, the Polish authorities would punish many people accused of participating in the riots. But it would not prevent the fighting from continuing as the battle for Lviv would persist until May 1919. It would not be until 1920 when both Poland and Ukraine came to an agreement about an acceptable border.

Lana Nicole

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    Ukraine Truth
    Rights We Didnt Know We Had

    Throughout EuroMaidan much has been made of Ukrainians making a stand for their rights. What exactly those rights are were never clearly defined. Ukraine ratified the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1952. The first article of the Declaration states all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience, and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. The ousted and overthrown Ukrainian government showed to the world they dont understand the meaning of these words.


    Kyiv Culture

    Pulling Strings
    Located on Hrushevskoho Street the epicentre of EuroMaidan violence, home to battles, blazes and barricades childrens favourite the Academic Puppet Theatre had to shut down in February. Nevertheless, it is getting ready to reopen this March with a renewed repertoire to bring some laughter back to a scene of tragedy. Operating (not manipulating) puppets is a subtle art that can make kids laugh and adults cry. Whats On meets Mykola Petrenko, art director of the Theatre, to learn more about those who pull the strings behind the show.

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