|On the cover|
Tunnelling Towards Hope
|28 February - 6 March 2014|
A Stronghold of Rulers and Rebels
With the recent death toll jumping to nearly 100 and 1,000 injured, Hrushevskoho Street, one of the strongholds of EuroMaidan’s three-month-long protests, made headlines around the globe. It was here, on 19 January the country’s stand against government corruption, abuse of power, and the violation of human rights turned from peaceful protest to all-out revolution. Having witnessed much over the years, Hrushevskoho is a street with a history, and not only care of recent days.
Acelebrity using their status and intelligence to influence public views and opinion is rarely seen in modern society, even less so in Ukraine. Here, the majority of celebs use their time, effort, and money to enhance or further their career rather than put their name to something that can do good for others. However, as EuroMaidan intensifies, some are making themselves heard – and they fall either side of the EuroMaidan divide.
It used to be that when rebellion and revolution occurred, the intellectual, creative, and spiritual elite would be front and centre.
When Walls Can Talk
People have been writing on walls since the dawn of civilisation, we call it graffiti, and ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings. Sometimes it is merely the creator wanting to leave his or her mark; sometimes there is an underlying social or political reason. And it is due to the latter that graffiti has exploded across Kyiv in recent months. Anti dictator messages aside, we peel back a few layers of paint to look at graffiti in the city in general.
The Cossack Leader Who Wrote the First Constitution
Pylyp Orlyk was an eighteenth-century hetman of Right Bank Ukraine and yet another in a long line of Ukrainian Cossack legends. He wrote one of the world’s first democratic constitutions, the anniversary of which we celebrate this month. His ideas were ahead of his time. Who was this fellow for whom Ukrainian streets are named?
Orlyk was born on 11 October, 1672 in the town of Kosuta, in what’s now Belarus, to a noble family with Czech blood – that in fact was spread out over Czech and Moravian territory. Unlike many if not all Cossack leaders, who were a diverse bunch, he was highly educated, graduating from a Jesuit school in Lithuania and from the Mohyla Academy right here in Kyiv.
Eventually he married a daughter of a Poltavan colonel, which solidified his position in Ukrainian society, and they set about having children – eight in all. It’s a sign of Orlyk’s social status that the godfathers of two of those children were the even more legendary Cossack chieftan Ivan Mazepa and Swedish king Charles XII, one of the most illustrious and formidable figures ever to burn, pillage, slaughter, and conquer his way across north-central and northeastern Europe. It was the Mazepa connection, however, that was the important one. Hetman Mazepa couldn’t but pay attention to the young and talented Orlyk. In 1698 he appointed Orlyk to a high administrative post in Kyiv. In 1699 Orlyk became a senior member of Mazepa’s General Military Chancellery and then a leader of the Zaporizhian forces. Orlyk became one of the closest assistants to Mazepa and carried out important - and historically fateful - diplomatic missions concerning the Ukrainian alliance with the anti-Russian Polish ruling class. He was in on Mazepa’s plans to ally with Charles XII and Sweden and revolt against the Tsar. We know how that turned out. Peter the Great defeated the seemingly invincible Charles and his Ukrainian allies at the famous Battle of Poltava. Charles, Mazepa, and Orlyk retreated to Ottoman-controlled Bendery, in what’s now Moldova. After the broken Mazepa’s death, Orlyk became the new Hetman of Ukraine on the 5 April. On the same day, Orlyk’s new constitution of Ukraine was proclaimed and Orlyk passed out of the ranks of second-class Cossack leaders and into the annals of history. The document was actually called Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host. Since it saw the light of day in Bendery, Orlyk’s constitution is sometimes referred to as the Bendery Proclamation. For the rest of his life Orlyk was in immigration, as Ukraine was no longer safe for someone who’d risen up against Peter the Great. While abroad he concluded alliances with Sweden and the Crimean Khan and entered into negotiations with Ottoman Turkey to ally against Russia and start a war for Ukrainian independence.Together with the Crimean Tatars and small groups of Cossacks Orlyk carried out raids into Right Bank Ukraine. Eventually he followed Charles XII back to Sweden, and also lived in Austria and Bohemia. Unfortunately, Orlyk’s plans to emancipate Ukraine from Russia were crushed and he had to move to Sweden, then to Austria and later to Czechia. His last hope was the 1740 war between Russia and Turkey, but it slipped away when the two states made peace. Orlyk died on 24 May in Yassi, Moldova, then an Ottoman territory. He left behind a huge bulk of letters, speeches, and diaries in Ukrainian, Latin, French, and Polish.
A Democratic Constitution
But it’s his unique constitution that he’s famous for. Historians call it one of the world’s first democratic constitutions. The main idea behind it is the absolute independence of Ukraine, and it defined Ukraine’s borders. But it also defined the rights of the people and the independent status of the Zaporizhian Sich, that rough-and-tumble and anarchically egalitarian Cossack community. The Hetman was to be the head of state, but his power would be limited by a rada, or council. The state treasury would be totally separate from the Hetman’s treasury and a clearly defined amount of money would go to maintaining the Hetman. Colonels and other military leaders would be elected democratically by the Cossacks. Orthodoxy would be the faith of Ukraine, but Ukrainians would not submit to the patriarch of Moscow. The distinguishing feature of the constitution, and that which made it one of the most democratic among similar documents of those times, were the articles that limited the Hetman’s power. Even nowadays the document is impressive for its high level of political thought. And it preceded the French Revolution and the United States Constitution and Declaration of Independence by the better part of a century. Not bad for a war-loving Cossack leader in the bloody years of the seventeenth century.
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|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:57|
Here are the names of those who put their signatures on the bottom of the Declaration of Independence, and the US Constitution.
Prominent individuals Frederick Alexcee, artist (also of Tsimshian ancestry) Henry Armstrong, boxer, #2 in Ring Magazine's list of the 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years George Armstrong, hockey player, most successful captain of the Toronto Maple Leafs with five Stanley Cup victories. Joseph Brant or Thayendanegea, Mohawk leader Cornplanter or Kaintwakon, Seneca chief Deganawida or The Great Peacemaker, the traditional founder along with Hiawatha of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy Graham Greene, Canadian Oneida and award-winning actor Handsome Lake (Ganioda'yo), Seneca religious leader Ki Longfellow, novelist Oren Lyons, Onondaga, a traditional Faithkeeper of the Turtle clan Ely S. Parker, Seneca, UNI0N Army officer during American Civil War; appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs during Ulysses S. Grant's first term as President. Red Jacket, Seneca orator and chief of the Wolf clan Robbie Robertson, Mohawk, songwriter, guitarist and singer who was part of The Band. Joanne Shenandoah, Oneida singer, songwriter, actress and educator Jay Silverheels, actor, of Canadian Mohawk origin, famously portrayed Tonto the companion to The Lone Ranger Kateri Tekakwitha, Mohawk and Algonquin, first Catholic Native American saint, patron of ecology Canassatego, Tadadaho of the Iroquois Confederacy
Just kidding, that all cameup under the Iroquoian Link. Though they had a great impact on the freedom of the American People, these persons did not sign the above said contracts! thankyou everyone. Ciao!
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:36|
All the question marks are because I wrote my closing in Ukrainian, and this program apparently is not smart enough. Well, here are the links:
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:33|
??????? ????, ??? ????????? ???? ???? ???? ????????????? ?????? ??????, ? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????????, ? ???????? ? ?????, ??? ???????, ????????, ? ????????? ????? ??????? ? ???????! ??? ???????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????, ? ??? ???????????? ???? ???! Thank you everyone, who finds something of his liberty blessed by the work of Orlyk, and so many more advocates, and men and women who have fought, died, and procured the blessings of liberty and freedom! God bless the Ukrainian States of America and God bless you all! All this aside, this is a marvelous and informing article written by Viktoria Vasilchenko! ????? ???? ?? ?? ??????????, ? ?????? ????? ??????!
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:27|
The term "framers" is sometimes used to specify those who helped "craft" the Constitution. "Founding Fathers" often refers to people who contributed to the development of independence and nationhood. However, the notion of a "framer" or a "Founding Father" is not easily defined. For purposes of this website, "Founding Fathers" are individuals who had a significant impact on the Constitution either directly or indirectly. The following list is by no means complete, but it does identify people who played a large role in the development of the Constitution at this crucial time in American history.
To learn more about the Constitution — the people, the events, the landmark cases — order a copy of “The U.S. Constitution & Fascinating Facts About It” today!
Call to order: 1-800-887-6661 or order pocket constitution books online.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:26|
Other U.S. Founding Fathers were not there, but made significant contributions in other ways. Thomas Jefferson, who wrote the Declaration of Independence, was serving as ambassador to France at the time of the Convention. He kept abreast of the proceedings in Philadelphia by carrying on correspondence with James Madison. John Adams, as ambassador to Great Britain, wrote "Defense of the Constitution of the Government of the United States of America." Thomas Paine wrote the influential pamphlet "Common Sense," which immeasurably influenced the philosophy reflected in the Declaration of Independence. One of the U.S. Founding Fathers, Patrick Henry, was initially opposed to the very idea of the Constitution! He wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation, the predecessor to the Constitution. However, when an agreement was made to add a "bill of rights" to the Constitution, Henry fought hard for its ratification.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:26|
United States (U.S.) Founding Fathers
The U.S. Constitution brought together, in one remarkable document, ideas from many people and several existing documents, including the Articles of Confederation and Declaration of Independence. Those who made significant intellectual contributions to the Constitution are called the "Founding Fathers" of our country.
Many of the United States Founding Fathers were at the Constitutional Convention, where the Constitution was hammered out and ratified. George Washington, for example, presided over the Convention. James Madison, also present, wrote the document that formed the model for the Constitution.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:25|
Influence on the United States Constitution Historians including Donald Grinde of the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York have claimed that the democratic ideals of the Gayanashagowa provided a significant inspiration to Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and other framers of the United States Constitution. Franklin circulated copies of the proceedings of the 1744 Treaty of Lancaster among his fellow colonists; at the close of this document, the Iroquois leaders offer to impart instruction in their democratic methods of government to the English. John Rutledge of South Carolina, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, is said to have read lengthy tracts of Iroquoian law to the other framers, beginning with the words "We, the people, to form a UNI0N, to establish peace, equity, and order..." In October 1988, the US Congress passed Concurrent Resolution 331 to recognize the influence of the Iroquois Constitution upon the US Constitution and Bill of Rights.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:16|
The women held real power, particularly the power to veto treaties or declarations of war. The members of the Grand Council of Sachems were chosen by the mothers of each clan. If any leader failed to comply with the wishes of the women of his tribe and the Great Law of Peace, the mother of his clan could demote him, a process called "knocking off the horns". The deer antlers, emblem of leadership, were removed from his headgear, thus returning him to private life. Councils of the mothers of each tribe were held separately from the men's councils. The women used men as runners to send word of their decisions to concerned parties, or a woman could appear at the men's council as an orator, presenting the view of the women. Women often took the initiative in suggesting legislation.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:14|
Religious beliefs Some scholars have seen Locke's political convictions as deriving from his religious beliefs. Locke's religious trajectory began in Calvinist trinitarianism, but by the time of the Reflections (1695) Locke was advocating not just Socinian views on tolerance but also Socinian Christology; with veiled denial of the pre-existence of Christ. However Wainwright (Oxford, 1987) notes that in the posthumously published Paraphrase (1707) Locke's interpretation of one verse, Ephesians 1:10, is markedly different from that of Socinians like Biddle, and may indicate that near the end of his life Locke returned nearer to an Arian position.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:13|
Today, most contemporary libertarians claim Locke as an influence. But Locke's influence may have been even more profound in the realm of epistemology. Locke redefined subjectivity, or self, and intellectual historians such as Charles Taylor and Jerrold Seigel argue that Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) marks the beginning of the modern Western conception of the self. Constitution of Carolina Appraisals of Locke have often been tied to appraisals of liberalism in general, and also to appraisals of the United States. Detractors note that (in 1671) he was a major investor in the English slave-trade through the Royal African Company, as well as through his participation in drafting the Fundamental Constitution of the Carolinas while Shaftesbury's secretary, which established a feudal aristocracy and gave a master absolute power over his slaves. For example, Martin Cohen notes that as a secretary to the Council of Trade and Plantations (1673–4) and a member of the Board of Trade (1696–1700) Locke was, in fact, "one of just half a dozen men who created and supervised both the colonies and their iniquitous systems of servitude". Some see his statements on unenclosed property as having been intended to justify the displacement of the Native Americans. Because of his opposition to aristocracy and slavery in his major writings, he is accused of hypocrisy and racism, or of caring only for the liberty of English capitalists.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:12|
Locke exercised a profound influence on political philosophy, in particular on modern liberalism. Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State. He had a strong influence on Voltaire who called him "le sage Locke". His arguments concerning liberty and the social contract later influenced the written works of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and other Founding Fathers of the United States. In fact, one passage from the Second Treatise is reproduced verbatim in the Declaration of Independence, the reference to a "long train of abuses."
Such was Locke's influence that Thomas Jefferson wrote: "Bacon, Locke and Newton ... I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences".
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:07|
The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War.
The birthday of the United States of America—Independence Day—is celebrated on July 4, the day the wording of the Declaration was approved by Congress. The Declaration justified the independence of the United States by listing colonial grievances against King George III, and by asserting certain natural rights, including a right of revolution. Having served its original purpose in announcing independence, the text of the Declaration was initially ignored after the American Revolution. Its stature grew over the years, particularly the second sentence, a sweeping statement of individual human rights: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:03|
Tooker concluded there is little resemblance between the two documents or reason to believe the Iroquois had a meaningful influence on the American Constitution, and that it is unclear how much impact Canasatego's statement at Lancaster actually had on the representatives of the colonies. Stanford University historian Jack N. Rakove argued against Iroquoian influence, pointing to lack of evidence in the US constitutional debate records, and ample European antecedents for democratic US institutions. Journalist Charles C. Mann has noted other differences between The Great Law of Peace and the original US Constitution include the original Constitution's denial of suffrage to women, and rule of majority as opposed to consensus.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:02|
In October 1988, the US Congress passed Concurrent Resolution 331 to recognize the influence of the Iroquois Constitution upon the US Constitution and Bill of Rights. The influence of the Iroquois confederation on the Constitution is not considered credible by other scholars. Iroquois historian Elizabeth Tooker has pointed to several differences between the two forms of government, notably that all decisions were made by a consensus of male chiefs who gained their position through a combination of blood descent and selection by female relatives, that representation on the basis of the number of clans in the group rather than the size or population of the clans, that the topics discussed were decided by a single tribe.
|Roman L. Comer | 17.06.2011 01:01|
links here: http://www.constitutionfacts.com/us-founding-fathers/
and : Influence on the United States Constitution Historians including Donald Grinde of the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York have claimed that the democratic ideals of the Gayanashagowa provided a significant inspiration to Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and other framers of the United States Constitution. Franklin circulated copies of the proceedings of the 1744 Treaty of Lancaster among his fellow colonists; at the close of this document, the Iroquois leaders offer to impart instruction in their democratic methods of government to the English. John Rutledge of South Carolina, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, is said to have read lengthy tracts of Iroquoian law to the other framers, beginning with the words "We, the people, to form a UNI0N, to establish peace, equity, and order..."
A Stronghold of Rulers and Rebels
More Than A Square
Game of Thrones
A Divisive National Hero
The Ukrainian Roots of Sholem Aleichem
|Rights We Didn’t Know We Had
Throughout EuroMaidan much has been made of Ukrainians making a stand for their rights. What exactly those rights are were never clearly defined. Ukraine ratified the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1952. The first article of the Declaration states all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience, and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. The ousted and overthrown Ukrainian government showed to the world they don’t understand the meaning of these words.
| Kyiv Culture|
Located on Hrushevskoho Street – the epicentre of EuroMaidan violence, home to battles, blazes and barricades – children’s favourite the Academic Puppet Theatre had to shut down in February. Nevertheless, it is getting ready to reopen this March with a renewed repertoire to bring some laughter back to a scene of tragedy. Operating (not manipulating) puppets is a subtle art that can make kids laugh and adults cry. What’s On meets Mykola Petrenko, art director of the Theatre, to learn more about those who pull the strings behind the show.