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7 (2014)
Tunnelling Towards Hope

28 February - 6 March 2014

Ukraine History

A Stronghold of Rulers and Rebels

With the recent death toll jumping to nearly 100 and 1,000 injured, Hrushevskoho Street, one of the strongholds of EuroMaidans three-month-long protests, made headlines around the globe. It was here, on 19 January the countrys stand against government corruption, abuse of power, and the violation of human rights turned from peaceful protest to all-out revolution. Having witnessed much over the years, Hrushevskoho is a street with a history, and not only care of recent days.


Ukraine Today
Acelebrity using their status and intelligence to influence public views and opinion is rarely seen in modern society, even less so in Ukraine. Here, the majority of celebs use their time, effort, and money to enhance or further their career rather than put their name to something that can do good for others. However, as EuroMaidan intensifies, some are making themselves heard and they fall either side of the EuroMaidan divide.
It used to be that when rebellion and revolution occurred, the intellectual, creative, and spiritual elite would be front and centre.


Ukrainian Culture

When Walls Can Talk

People have been writing on walls since the dawn of civilisation, we call it graffiti, and ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings. Sometimes it is merely the creator wanting to leave his or her mark; sometimes there is an underlying social or political reason. And it is due to the latter that graffiti has exploded across Kyiv in recent months. Anti dictator messages aside, we peel back a few layers of paint to look at graffiti in the city in general.


Ukraine History

The Start of the Space Race

The world changed forever when on 4 October 1957 the Soviet UNI0N successfully launched from Kazakhstans Baikonur cosmodrome the first artificial satellite, Sputnik I 50 years ago this week
The launch of Sputnik I ushered in new political, military, technological and scientific developments and the Russian word sputnik (meaning travelling companion) entered the lexicons of many languages. The world press was filled with headlines that expressed admiration for the Soviet UNI0Ns achievement. The launch, which took the human race into the new era of space exploration, was hailed by many as the greatest technological advance of the 20th Century.

The United States, meanwhile, was shocked, especially its Defense Department. The Soviets had successfully completed the first stage of a top secret Cold War space project, which happened to have been led by a Ukrainian scientist from Zhitomyr named Serhiy Korolyov. Weighing just 83.6 kg (183 pounds) and the size of a basketball, Sputnik I was lofted into space by an R7 rocket developed by principal designer Korolyov. The satellite carried a thermometer and two radio transmitters. Circling the earth once every 96.2 minutes on its elliptical orbit, the Sputnik I transmitted atmospheric information by radio, but its two transmitters functioned for only 21 days. Serhiy Korolyov had raised the idea of a satellite launch with the Soviet government back in 1954. He was given the go-ahead to set up a secret team named OKB 1 to build one in spite of the fact that he had been arrested in 1938 as a Trotskyite and had been incarcerated in the Gulag until 1944. Korolyovs team, working day and night on the ambitious 1.5-ton apparatus packed with scientific instruments, fell behind schedule. So its leader had a brilliant idea: We will make a simple satellite ourselves, he declared.

 It took just two months for his plant to make the worlds first artificial satellite. The United States reeled from the Soviet UNI0Ns unexpected launch, which followed shortly after Americas failed launch of the satellite Vanguard the previous month. The American public also feared that the Soviets ability to launch satellites meant they had the capability to launch ballistic missiles that could carry nuclear weapons from Europe to the U.S. Senator Lyndon Johnson said the Russians had jumped way ahead in the conquest of space. Soon they will be dropping bombs on us from space like kids dropping rocks onto cars from freeway overpasses, he declared. It wasnt long before the Soviets struck again; on 3 November 1957 Sputnik II was launched carrying a much heavier payload (1100 pounds) and the first ever cosmonaut - a dog named Laika. There was lots of finger-pointing and yelling in Washington, but some also said that Sputnik didnt pose an immediate military threat. Yet the mere presence of the satellite beeping across American radar screens every 90 minutes served as a potent reminder to the fact that they were falling behind. Responding to the political backlash that resulted from the launching of Sputnik I and II, the U.S. Defense Department immediately began funding another U.S. satellite project. In a parallel project to Vanguard, German scientist Werner von Braun and his Army Redstone Arsenal team began work on the Explorer project. On 31 January 1958 the tide turned as the first American satellite Explorer I aboard a Jupiter C rocket rose into the atmosphere carrying with it all the hopes and dreams of Cold War America. This satellite carried a small scientific payload that eventually discovered magnetic radiation belts around the Earth. It made its final transmission on 23 May 1958.

 Serhiy Korolyov and the other Soviet designers of the first satellite described it as a simple one - ingeniously simple. Sputnik I lived 92 days, orbited 1,400 times, travelled about 60 million kilometres and entered the atmosphere on 4 January 1958. Space exploration has made giant steps forward during the last fifty years. Mankinds knowledge about the sun, the planets and the moon has deepened. There are footprints on the dried oceans of the moon, and automated stations and drilling equipment working on Venus, Mars and a comet. Korolyovs achievement really did change world history. There are museums featuring photos and documents related to him at Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in Kyiv, where he studied, and in his hometown of Zhitomyr.

Anatoli Artemenko

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    Ukraine Truth
    Rights We Didnt Know We Had

    Throughout EuroMaidan much has been made of Ukrainians making a stand for their rights. What exactly those rights are were never clearly defined. Ukraine ratified the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1952. The first article of the Declaration states all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience, and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. The ousted and overthrown Ukrainian government showed to the world they dont understand the meaning of these words.

    Kyiv Culture

    Pulling Strings
    Located on Hrushevskoho Street the epicentre of EuroMaidan violence, home to battles, blazes and barricades childrens favourite the Academic Puppet Theatre had to shut down in February. Nevertheless, it is getting ready to reopen this March with a renewed repertoire to bring some laughter back to a scene of tragedy. Operating (not manipulating) puppets is a subtle art that can make kids laugh and adults cry. Whats On meets Mykola Petrenko, art director of the Theatre, to learn more about those who pull the strings behind the show.


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